Hydrolysis (video) | Carbohydrates | Khan Academy
When you are thirsty, it is your body's way of telling you to drink some water because you are dehydrated. Hydrolysis, which is the reverse of a dehydration reaction, works the same way. What is the difference between dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis?. Dehydration synthesis is an anabolic process and takes place when amino acids are joined by peptide bonds to make protein; when. Dehydration synthesis is when two molecules are chained together and a water molecule is ejected from the coupling. A hydrolysis reaction is when a water.
And just by doing that, you'd form the disaccharide maltose if these were both glucose molecules.
Difference Between Dehydration Synthesis and Hydrolysis | Definition, Mechanism, Examples
But then you could keep going, and you could form longer chains of glucose molecules. And to these things, where you would take a monosaccharide, glucose is the most common example of that, and you create chains of these, we call these polysaccharides. Polysaccharides, this is a polysaccharide. And there's all sorts of interesting examples of polysaccharides all around you, especially polysaccharides of glucose, or things that are derived from glucose.
This right here this is a bowl of mashed potatoes, which is mostly starch. Which is mainly just chains of glucose.
So this right over here, that is starch. The shell of a lot of insects and things like lobsters, and the wings of these insects right over here, that's made of something called chitin. And chitin is also a polysaccharide. It's made of chains, a modification of glucose chains of that, that's chitin right over there. Very similar to starch, in our muscles we have glycogen, which is our store of energy in our muscles.
You have cellulose, which is probably all around you right now. Cellulose are things like-- Because this is something that's all around you, and you don't even realize it. Cellulose, this is what constitutes things like paper and wood.
- Difference Between Dehydration Synthesis and Hydrolysis
- Difference Between Hydrolysis and Dehydration Synthesis
It's involved in the cell walls of plants. This right over here is a picture of cotton, cotton in its natural form. And cotton is actually one of the purest forms of cellulose, it's roughly 90 percent cellulose.
And if you take a zoom in on a cotton fiber, actually a fiber of cellulose, you'll see chains of glucose molecules. So you see this right over here, that is a glucose molecule.
How are both dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis important to most biological molecules?
Then you see another glucose molecule. And this chain has been formed through dehydration synthesis. And difference between starch and cellulose, for the main difference, in terms of how this bonding has.
With starch, the glucose molecules just keep forming the way that you saw in the video on dehydration synthesis. While in cellulose, they get flipped over. So you can see here, this oxygen is pointing that way, this oxygen is pointing that way, that oxygen is pointing that way.
And you could look up more about cellulose.
But it's really interesting, what gives it its structure are these hydrogen bonds that form between the partially negative, the very electronegative oxygens on one strand. And the partially positive hydrogens on another strand, and that's actually what give its structure. So really, really interesting things, these polysaccharides.
Dehydration/ Hydrolysis Reactions
The question is, how do you actually break these things down? If I were to eat these mashed potatoes, how do I eventually turn this thing into glucose, so I could use it for energy? And the way that happens is through hydrolysis.
And you could break down this word. The "hydro", if you see hydro, the prefix hydro, that's a good clue that it has something to do with water. And then if you see "lysis", if you're lysing something, this means that you're gonna break it down. So this is breaking down something using water.
And that's exactly what happens with hydrolysis. If you have this polysaccharide, and let's throw a water molecule in there, this water molecule is going to be able to break one of these bonds. So we might end up with something like-- This chain could keep going in both directions, but we could end up with something that looks like this. That looks something like that.
So half of this water molecule gets broken up, essentially to break this bond. It's the opposite of dehydration synthesis. The bottom line is Hydrolysis occurs when water is added to the equation to break it down or separate it. In our bodies, Hydrolysis is the main process to release energy. When we eat food, it is digested or broken down into substances so the body can absorb it and convert it to energy. Foods, having complex molecules are broken down into simple molecules. When energy is needed for biosynthesis, ATP is hydrolyzed and stored energy is released for utilization.
Dehydration Synthesis Dehydration means to take away water, and synthesis means to build or create something. Hence, Dehydration Synthesis is defined as taking away water to build something. This process happens by removing one molecule of —OH hydroxyl group and one molecule of -H to form H2O or water.
This results in covalently joining two monomers small molecules to form a polymer larger molecule. Dehydration Synthesis uses condensation in the process and when this continues for a long period of time, a long and complex chain is formed, just like the ones in polysaccharides. It is also is responsible for storing excess glucose molecules as much as larger polysaccharides like starch and glycogen.
Examples of Hydrolysis and Dehydration Synthesis Hydrolysis and Dehydration Synthesis work the same way with proteins, carbohydrates, nucleic acids and lipids. As mentioned earlier, in the process of Hydrolysis — when water is added, it separates the bond between oxygen and hydrogen and reforms into two separate hydroxyls.