Google doodles highlight our planet's 5 biomes to mark Earth Day
Google doodles highlight our planet's 5 biomes to mark Earth Day remember and celebrate our home in this great and stunning ecosystem.". Learn about ecosystem science - Earth's biomes, life forms, and how these work as a system. An ecosystem is a group of organisms that live in a specific area and interact closely with Ecosystems are closely related to biomes because there are many .
The carbon stored in forests thus indirectly acquires a value that increases or gives a new dimension to the social value of forests.
However, these international commitments do not have a significant impact on the behaviour of owners, who are not paid for the service that they provide to the community by storing carbon on their property. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change IPCC therefore considers that "In the long term, a sustainable forest management strategy aimed at maintaining or increasing forest carbon stocks, while producing an annual sustained yield of timber, fibre or energy from the forest, will generate the largest sustained mitigation benefit.
With respect to mountains, a transitory phase of relative reduction in stocks is probable, or even preferable, because very large-diameter wood diameters higher than 65 cm are currently largely represented. These trees can rapidly lose their economic value foot rot, injury, difficulty in sawing very large trees and are vulnerable to parasite attacks and wind blasts Gauquelin and Courbaud, It may therefore be advisable to harvest them while they are still marketable when there is a likelihood of an increase in extreme climatic events.
We can therefore also plan for an increase in the social demand for the protection service provided by the forest. Lastly, climate change increases the risks of a loss in biodiversity in all ecosystems and should reinforce the demand for preservation of forest areas for their service as a biodiversity reservoir. Awareness of the potential effects of climate change on the forest by forest stakeholders 15Forest stakeholders show contradictory signs of awareness of the possible impacts of climate change on the forest.
The theme of climate change has rapidly become a central focus of forest research. There are many events and vulgarisation publications that deal with climate change Legay and Mortier, ; Legay et al. With respect to forestry management, it recommends the identification of species at risk by type of ecological condition and their gradual replacement with other species, the maintenance of a moderate standing stock to reduce the risk of loss, the stepping up of forestry in line with the observed growth increase, the mixing of species, attention to soil settlement which increases water stress and the control of cervid populations to prevent the extinction of adapted species.
Spruce firs at elevations under m and firs in Mediterranean forests are considered to be threatened by climate change, aggravated by biotic interactions such as bark beetles for spruce and mistletoe for firs.
In such situations, these species must be limited in favour of more heterogeneous stands, by promoting the dynamics of hardwood and the development of larch, Douglas fir or cedar, depending on the context. A survey conducted with 25 forest operators in the Vercors region however reveals relatively little concern about the local consequences of climate change on the forest and the absence of a short-term adaptation project in this massif that was relatively spared by the drought Rodron et al.
However, there is still not enough feedback on this strategy. The strategy involves the cutting down of rotation periods, a reduction of logging diameters and the reduction of standing trees, in order to mitigate the risks of operating losses decline of old trees or trees at the climatic borderthe reduction in the water consumption of trees Breda et al. However, cutting down too many large-diameter trees could jeopardise the sustainability of harvests, the protective role and biodiversity.
The reduction in large-diameter trees, as well as the exploitation of logging residues and stumps in relation with the development of the energy wood sector could be detrimental to certain species that depend on deadwood for nourishment or reproduction Landmann et al. With respect to voluntary changes in species, attempts to plant reforestation species are still marginal. Because of the many failures of introductions in the past and the negative image for biodiversity, the interest of reforestation as an adaptation to climate change is subject to debate.
Controlled and targeted introduction in highly vulnerable areas could however be a possible strategy in the short-term. The objective of increasing forest production seems to be strongly reflected despite the contradictions raised by the recurrence of unsold lots in mountain areas when logging conditions are very difficult.
Risks related to under-adaptation 19Faced with the uncertainty about the effects of climate change on the dynamics of the various forest tree species and the limitations of the action of forest operators, it is possible that forest management adaptations be set up relatively slowly on the field, in particular in forests that are not very productive.
In terms of production, such a situation could result in the under-valuation of the forest, which does not take full advantage of the increase in productivity and subalpine forest areas surfaces.
Insufficient logging could also lead to the development of stands that are either very dense or ageing, made up, in both cases of trees that are less resistant to wind and decline, which increases natural hazards risk of fire related to the presence of deadwood, diminished protective role of the forest.
Forest management therefore has an essential role to play here in maintaining production and protection services. A wait-and-see attitude concerning changes in tree species could lead to changes in production if there is an increase in hardwood to the detriment of resinous species decrease in timber and increase in energy wood. There could also be a loss in forest productivity if southern types of tree species, which are less productive, replace mountain species decline of fir, spruce and Scots pine, growth of pubescent oaks Roman-Amat, With respect to the protective role of forests and biodiversity, an increase in hardwood could be considered as positive in some cases improved resistance of hardwood to rock falls, hardwood more natural than the black spruce plantations that were established in the Southern Alps at the beginning of the 20th century to fight erosion on marls.
Nevertheless, a decrease in resinous species in mountain forests could result in the loss of the characteristic landscapes and ecosystems with a huge impact on the related animal and plant diversity. It therefore appears essential that forest operators implement actions to favour mountain species, in particular work to limit competition from colonising species.
Lastly, it is indispensable that non-commercial forest services such as carbon storage, the role of reservoir of biodiversity or protection be better recognised by public opinion. This will enable them to effectively orient forest management adaptation to climate change. Risks related to over-adaptation 20The opposite situation of over-adaptation to climate change would also be detrimental. Excessively applying intensification strategies could lead to stripping and large clearings that would expose trees that on their own are quite unstable to wind.
It would also result in a change in the forest microclimate and, depending on the case, to the drying up of regeneration, an explosion of blueberries and herbaceous vegetation or the development of impenetrable regeneration thickets.
Although harvest would be increased in the short term, the various functions production, protection and conservation of biodiversity would deteriorate in the medium term.
A sudden intensification of this kind would probably lead to the over-exploitation of stands that are easy to access, and the building of road networks or rights of way for cables in the slopes exposed to natural hazards or with a high landscape impact. As things now stand, caution must also be exercised with respect to the voluntary changes in tree species through plantation.
These actions are costly and their benefits are not guaranteed because future climatic conditions and related disturbance regimes could turn out to be different from the conditions currently encountered at lower elevations.
Moreover, provision must be made for new soil and climate combinations. Artificial changes in tree species over large areas would have a negative impact on biodiversity with uncertain results in terms of production. Choosing tree species that are not well adapted could result in the decline of plantations.
In extreme cases, some landowners would lose their investments which would discourage them and make them totally abandon their project.
Adaptive management and factoring in of uncertainties 21Given these pitfalls, the challenge is to succeed in setting up adaptations to climate change that are measured, progressive and adapted to the local context. Field operators have stressed the importance of the close observation of ongoing changes at their scale as the prerequisite for the practical adaptation of management Rodron et al.
We can hope for the development of interactions between management and research, inspired from the concept of adaptive management Cordonnier and Gosselin, This approach would make it possible to organise observations, first around a more intensive and better quantified monitoring of forest ecosystems, and then around the setting up of more controlled and more diversified management actions.
The purpose is to structure questions, quantify observations, share knowledge, agree on management targets and rally forces around large-scale systems. In this context, we can cite the "no regrets" strategies that consist in making investments that improve capacities to cope with climate change but that are beneficial even when absent. This is the case for example of investments in forest servicing or the development of cable logging.
The development of mixed stands is a good example because the presence of secondary species allows for the reversal of management orientations if a dominant species turns out not well adapted in the long term. In the case of climate or market fluctuations, mixed stands distribute risks evenly on species with different environmental and commercial characteristics that can be valued alternatively.
Decision horizon reduction strategies also increase flexibility. In this case, we can imagine a reduction in forest management times.
Conclusion 23Climate change is stressing mountain forests but at the same time also increases the perception of the forest by society because of increased expectations on the services provided by forests. Forest operators are currently reflecting on how to set up strategies to adapt forest management to climate change, despite the high uncertainty about the future changes to forests. Haut de page Bibliographie Badeau V.
Climatic Change, 81, pp. Global Change Biology, 12, pp. Ecological Modelling,pp. Forest Ecology and Management,pp. Annals of Forest Science, 63, pp. Below, we discuss some of the biggest threats facing biodiversity today, as well as what the world can do and is doing to keep them in check. Climate change Changes in climate throughout our planet's history have, of course, altered life on Earth in the long run — ecosystems have come and gone and species routinely go extinct.
But rapid, manmade climate change speeds up the process, without affording ecosystems and species the time to adapt. For example, rising ocean temperatures and diminishing Arctic sea ice affects marine biodiversity and can shift vegetation zones, having global implications.
Overall, climate is a major factor in the distribution of species across the globe; climate change forces them to adjust. But many are not able to cope, causing them to die out.
Biomes and Ecosystems - Windows to the Universe
What can we do? Individuals can take various steps to fight climate change, such as reducing their carbon footprints, promoting education and contacting elected officials. International governments and cities can lead the charge, however, and the United Nations Climate Change Conference in Paris will hopefully be a turning point.
Deforestation and habitat loss Image: An estimated 18 million acres of forest are lost each year, due in part to logging and other human practices, destroying the ecosystems on which many species depend. Tropical rainforests in particular, such as the Amazonhold a high percentage of the world's known species, yet the regions themselves are in decline due to humans.
The solutions to deforestation mostly lie in policy — companies and corporations can adopt best practices and refuse to use timber and paper suppliers that contribute to deforestation.
In the same vein, conscious consumers can refuse to patronize companies that do, and put pressure on retailers that employ unsustainable manufacturing methods.
Individuals can also participate in land preservation through charities and private corporations. Ultimately, however, international governments need to enact stronger, scientific forest protection laws. Overexploitation Overhunting, overfishing and over-harvesting contribute greatly to the loss of biodiversity, killing off numerous species over the past several hundred years. Poaching and other forms of hunting for profit increase the risk of extinction; the extinction of an apex predator — or, a predator at the top of a food chain — can result in catastrophic consequences for ecosystems.