BBC - GCSE Bitesize: Predators and their prey
Lynx and Snowshoe Hare Cycle population cycling of the lynx and the snowshoe hare. Tech Tip: Students select the right or left arrows (¢ or ¡) to. Kerry Murphy for sparking my curiosity in Canada lynx and snowshoe hares in the first place. Additionally, I want . Relationship between horizontal cover and snowshoe hare density for (a) all transects, and mapping technical guide . the Hudson's Bay Company, trading in the fur of both snowshoe hare and lynx, hunting success of lynx -- and influencing the cycle in ways that might have a.
The Rise and Fall of the Canada Lynx and Snowshoe Hare | Britannica Blog
They continuously fluctuate in response to a variety of stimulating and limiting factors. We tend to speak of limiting factors as applying to a single species, although one factor may affect many species. Carrying capacity limitations can result in competition among domestic animals, wildlife, and humans. Natural limiting factors, or those modeled after factors in natural systems, tend to maintain populations of species at levels within predictable ranges.
Some species fluctuate or cycle annually. Quail, for example, may start with a population of pairs in early spring, grow to a population of 1, birds by late spring, and decline slowly to a winter population of pairs again. This cycle appears to be almost totally controlled by the habitat components of food, water, shelter, and space, which are also limiting factors.
Habitat components are the most fundamental and the most critical of limiting factors in most natural settings. This activity is a simple but powerful way for students to grasp some basic concepts: Procedure Tell students they will be participating in an activity that emphasizes the most essential things animals need in order to survive.
Review the essential components of habitat with the students: This activity emphasizes three of those habitat components—food, water, and shelter—but the students should not forget the importance of the animals having sufficient space in which to live, and that all the components must be in a suitable arrangement for wildlife populations to reach their maximum size.
Ask the students to count off in fours. Have all the ones go to one area; all twos, threes, and fours go together to another area. Mark two parallel lines on the ground or floor 10 to 20 yards apart. Have the ones line up behind one line; the rest of the students line up behind the other line, facing the ones. Again ask the students what the essential components of habitat are food, water, shelter and space in a suitable arrangement.
For this activity, assume that the deer have enough space in which to live.
The deer the ones need to find food, water, and shelter to survive. A deer can choose to look for any one of its needs during each around or segment of the activity; the deer cannot, however, change what it is looking for e.
It can change what it is looking for in the next round, if it survives. The twos, threes, and fours are food, water, and shelter—components of habitat.
Canada lynx video - Lynx canadensis - 08a | Arkive
Each student is allowed to choose at the beginning of each round which component he or she will be during that round. The students depict which component they are in the same way the deer show what they are looking for i. The activity starts with all players lined up behind their respective lines deer on one side, habitat components on the other side —and with their backs facing the students along the other line.
Begin the first round by asking all of the students to make their signs—each deer deciding what it is looking for, each habitat component deciding what it is. Give the students a few moments to put their hands in place—over stomachs, over mouths, or over their heads. The two lines of students normally will display a lot of variety—with some students portraying water, some food, and some shelter.
As the activity proceeds, sometimes the students confer with each other and all make the same sign. When deer see the habitat component they need, they should run to it. Each deer must hold the sign of what it is looking for until getting to the habitat component student with the same sign.
Undernourished hares also produce fewer offspring, with newborns less robust and therefore less likely to survive. A study of pregnant wild hares published in the November "Journal of Animal Ecology" found that any kind of stress, not just fear of predators, caused a similar decrease in reproductive efficiency. Lynx Cycles For the lynx, feast rapidly turns into famine. After a year or two of decline, the hare population bottoms out and starvation starts stalking the cats.
Relationship Between Rabbits & Lynx
At first, they make do with rodents, squirrels and wild birds; but in terms of both quantity and quality, this prey is inadequate. When their nutritional needs aren't being met, lynx can't maintain the reserves of body fat necessary to survive in the cold climate.
They're more vulnerable to predation and starvation, and the females can't provide their kittens with enough nourishment during gestation and afterward. According to the government of the Northwest Territories, such declines in lynx populations typically last three to five years. When food plants grow back unimpeded, and the hare population accordingly recovers, the lynx population follows suit. In The Conservation of the Wild Life of CanadaHewitt graphed the data from the records for a period extending from into the first decades of the s.
His graphs emphasized the close relationship in population density between snowshoe hares and Canada lynx. Proposed causes have ranged from disease to predation to constraints in food supply. The most significant factor driving fluctuations in snowshoe hare populations, however, appears to be simply exposure to stress, whether in the form of predation, disease, or scarcity of food. A report published in in the Journal of Animal Ecology detailed the results of a natural monitoring study paired with an experimental study testing the effects of stress on snowshoe hare reproduction.
The results revealed that female snowshoe hares have a strong adaptive response to stress. Both the pregnant females used in the experiment and the pregnant females sampled in the wild, which were in the midst of a population decline, were found to produce high levels of the hormone cortisola substance produced by animals under stress.